In situ bioremediation can be done in two different ways, by injecting substrate (i.e. emulsified vegetable oil, lactate, etc) to biostimulate growth of indigenous microbial population, or by injecting a culture (i.e. KB-1) that is proven capable of biodegrading contaminants of concern. Bioaugmentation enhances bioremediation success because it introduces critical microorganisms to sites where they are abscent or present in very low numbers.
Prior to in situ remediation with bioaugmentation, the culture is maintained and grown in laboratory. For anaerobic cultures, such as KB-1, strictly anaerobic conditions must be maintained during growth, transport, and injection in situ in order to preserve its degradation capacity and to avoid death of key microorganisms until deployment at the field site.