Publications (Total 52)


  1. Kinsman, L., J. I. Gerhard, and J. L. Torero. Smoldering remediation and non-aqueous phase liquid mobility.  Journal of Hazardous Materials, 325, 101-112. doi: /10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.11.049.
  2. Fabris, I., D. Cormier, J.I. Gerhard, T. Bartczak, M. Kortschot, J.L. Torero, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Continuous, Self-Sustaining Smouldering Destruction of Simulated Faeces.  Fuel, 190, pp. 58-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.11.014.
  3. Yerman, L., D. Cormier, I. Fabris, J. Carrascal, J. L. Torero, J. I. Gerhard, Y.L. Cheng, 2016. Potential Bio-oil Production from Smouldering.  Waste and Biomass Valorization. pp. 1-10.  DOI 10.1007/s12649-016-9586-1.
  4. Molnar, I.L., P.C. Sanematsu, J.I. Gerhard, C.S. Willson, and D.M. O’Carroll, 2016. Quantified Pore-Scale Nanoparticle Transport in Porous Media and the Implications for Colloid Filtration Theory, Langmuir, 32 (31), pp 7841–7853. DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b01233.
  5. Kocur. C.M., Lomheim. L., Molenda, O., Weber, K. P., Austrins, L. M., Sleep, B.E., Boparai, H. K., Edwards, E. A., and O’Carroll, D. M. (2016) Long-Term Field Study of Microbial Community and Dechlorinating Activity Following Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Stabilized Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Injection. Sci. Technol., 2016, 50 (14), pp 7658–7670, DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01745. Publication Date (Web): June 15, 2016
  6. Mumford, K.G., Mustafa, N., Gerhard, J.I. (2016) Probabilistic risk assessment of contaminant transport in groundwater and vapour intrusion following remediation of a contaminant source. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. March 2016, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 1017-1031.
  7. Garcia, A.N.; Boparai, H.; O’Carroll, D. (2016) Enhanced Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloroethane by Coupled Nano Iron-Dithionite Treatment. Sci. Technol. Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b00734. Date (Web): April 29, 2016.
  8. Koenig, J., H.K. Boparai, M. Lee, D.M. O’Carroll, R.J. Barnes and M. J. Manefield, 2016. Particles and enzymes: Combining nanoscale zero valent iron and organochlorine respiring bacteria for the detoxification of chloroethane mixtures. Hazardous Materials. Volume 308, 106–112.
  9. Xu B.S., Sherwood Lollar B., Passeport E., Sleep B.E. (2016) Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport. Science of the Total Environment550: 200-208
  10. Mondal, P.. Lima, G., Zhang, D., Lomheim, L., Tossell, R.W., Patel, P., · Sleep, B.E. (2016) Evaluation of Peat and Sawdust as Permeable Reactive Barrier Materials for Stimulating In Situ Biodegradation of Trichloroethene. Journal of hazardous materials. 03/2016; 313. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.03.049.
  11. Rashwan, T.L., J.I. Gerhard, G. Grant.  2015.  Application of self-sustaining smouldering combustion for the destruction of wastewater biosolids.  Waste Management, 2016 Feb 15. pii: S0956-053X(16)30037-X. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.01.037. [Epub ahead of print].


  1. Scholes, J. Gerhard, G.P. Grant, D.W. Major, J.E. Vidumsky. 2015.  Smoldering remediation of coal tar contaminated soil: pilot field tests of STAR.  Environmental Science and Technology, DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b03177, pgs 1 – 9.
  2. L. Molnar, W.P. Johnson, J.I. Gerhard, C.S. Willson, D.M. O’Carroll, 2015. Predicting colloid transport through saturated porous media: A critical review. Water Resources Research, DOI:  10.1002/2015WR017318, 6804 – 6845.
  3. I.L. Molnar, J. Gerhard, C. Willson, D.M O’Carroll, 2015.  The impact of immobile zones on the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media.  Water Resources Research, DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017167.
  4. Chowdhury, A.I.A., Krol, M.M., Kocur, C.M., Boparai, H.K., Weber, K.P., Sleep, B.E., O’Carroll, D.M., 2015. NZVI injection into variably saturated soils: Field and modeling study, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Online 9 October 2015, ISSN 0169-7722,
  5. Hasan, T., Gerhard, J.I., Hadden, R.M., Rein, G. 2015. Self-sustaining smouldering combustion of coal tar for the remediation of contaminated sand: Two-Dimensional Experiments and Computational Simulations. Fuel, 150: 288-297.
  6. Kocur, C.M., Lomheim, L., Boparai, H.K., Chowdhury, A.I.A., Weber, K.P., Austrins, L.M., Edwards, E.A., Sleep, B.E., O’Carroll, D.M. 2015. Contributions of Abiotic and Biotic Dechlorination Following Carboxymethyl Cellulose Stabilized Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Injection. Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 49(14), 8648-8656.
  7. Sabahi, M.S., Montazeri, H., Sleep, B.E. 2015. Practical finite analytic methods for simulation of solute transport with scale-dependent dispersion under advection-dominated conditions, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 83, 799-808.
  8. Salman, M., Gerhard, J.I., Major, D.W., Pironi, P., Hadden, R.M. 2015. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by STAR technology using vegetable oil smoldering. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 285: 346 – 355.
  9. Sleep, B. E., Beranger, S., Reinecke, S., Filion, Y. DNAPL accumulation in wells and DNAPL recovery from wells: model development and application to a pilot scale study. Advances in Water Resources, 85, 109-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.09.023
  10. Wang, Z., Xu, S., Acosta, E. 2015. Heat of adsorption of surfactants and its role on nanoparticle stabilization. Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 91, 256-266.


  1. Gerhard, J.I., B.H. Kueper, and B.E. Sleep (2014). Modelling Source Zone Remediation, pp. 113-140.  Book Chapter in “Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation”, Eds. B.H. Kueper, H.F. Stroo, and C.H. Ward.  SERDP and ESTCP Remediation Technology Monograph Series. Springer, New York.  713 p.
  2. Jung, B., O’Carroll, D., Sleep, B. (2014) The influence of humic acid and clay content on the transport of polymer-coated iron nanoparticles through sand, Science of the Total Environment, 496:155 – 164.
  3. Krol, M.M., Johnson, R.L., Sleep, B.E. (2014) “An analysis of a mixed convection associated with thermal heating in contaminated porous media”, Science of the Total Environment, 499, 7-17.
  4. Kocur, C.M., Chowdhury, A.I., Sakulchaicharoen, N., Boparai, H.K., Weber, K.P., Sharma, P., Krol, M., Austrins, L., Peace, C., Sleep. B.E., O’Carroll, D.M. (2014) Field scale injection, mobility, and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized nanoscale zero valent iron particles. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(5)2862-2869.
  5. Kokkinaki, A., Werth, C. J.; Sleep, B. E. (2014) Comparison of upscaled models for multistage mass discharge from DNAPL source zones, Water Resources Research, 50(4), 3187-3205.
  6. Sabahi, M.S., Sleep, B. (2014) Practical finite analytic methods for simulation of advection-dominated solute transport. Hydrological Sciences Journal, DOI: 10.1080/ 02626667.2014.959447.
  7. Sabahi, M.S., Sleep, B. (2014) Practical finite analytic methods for simulation of advection-dominated solute transport. Hydrological Sciences Journal, DOI: 10.1080/ 02626667.2014.959447.
  8. Switzer, C., P. Pironi, JI Gerhard, G. Rein, and JL Torero (2014) Volumetric scale-up of smouldering remediation of contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 268: 51-60.


  1. Boparai, H.K., M. Joseph, D.M. O’Carroll. (2013) Cadmium (Cd2+) removal by nano zerovalent iron: surface analysis, effects of solution chemistry and surface complexation modelling. Sci. Pollut. Res. 9:6210-6221.
  2. Drake, S. S., O’Carroll, D. M. and Gerhard, J. I. (2013) Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 144:46-57.
  3. Kocur, C.M., O’Carroll, D.M., Sleep, B.E. (2013) Impact of nZVI stability on mobility in porous media. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. 145, 17–25.
  4. Kokkinaki, A., O’Carroll, D. M., Werth, C. J. and Sleep, B. E. (2013) An evaluation of Sherwood-Gilland models for NAPL dissolution and relation their relationship to soil properties, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 155: 87–98.
  5. Kokkinaki, A., O’Carroll, D. M., Werth, C. J. and Sleep, B. E. (2013) Coupled simulation of DNAPL infiltration and dissolution in three dimensional heterogeneous domains: process model validation. Water Resources Research, 49(10)7023-7036. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20503.
  6. Krol, M.M., Oleniuk, A.J., Kocur, C.M., Sleep, B.E., Bennett, P., Xiong, Z., O’Carroll, D.M. (2013) A Field-Validated Model for In Situ Transport of Polymer-Stabilized nZVI and Implications for Subsurface Injection. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(13) 7332–7340.
  7. Kueper, B.H. and J.I. Gerhard, 2013. Hydraulic Displacement of Dense, Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids.  Book Chapter in “Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation”, Eds. B.H. Kueper, H.F. Stroo, and C.H. Ward.
  8. O’Carroll, D.M., B. Sleep, M. Krol, H. Boparai, C. Kocur. (2013) Nanoscale zerovalent iron and bimetallic particles for contaminated site remediation. Advances in Water Resources, 51:104-122. Classed as one of top 3 most downloaded articles for Advances in Water Resources in 2014.
  9. Pensini, E., Sleep, B.E., Yip, C.M., O’Carroll, D. (2013) CMC binding to mineral substrates: Characterization by atomic force microscopy based – force spectroscopy and quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 402:58-67.
  10. Pensini, E., Sleep, B. E., Yip, C. M., and O’Carroll, D. M. (2013) Forces of interaction between fresh iron particles and iron oxide (magnetite): effect of water chemistry and polymer coatings. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 433:104-110.
  11. Pensini, E., Sleep, B. E., Yip, C. M. (2013) Forces of interactions between iron and aluminum silicates: effect of water chemistry and polymer coatings. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 411(1)8 – 15.
  12. Power, C., Gerhard, J.I., Tsourlos, P., and A. Giannopoulos. (2013)  A new coupled model for simulating the mapping of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Geophysics. 78(4)EN1-EN15, DOI: 10.1190/geo2012-0395.1.
  13. Wang, Z., Lam, A, Acosta, E. (2013) Suspensions of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stabilized by Anionic Surfactants. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents. 16:397-407.
  14. Wang, Z., Acosta, E. Formulation Design for Targeting Delivery of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles to TCE Zone. (2013) Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. 155:9-19.
  15. Zhi, D., Zhou, Z., and Sleep, B. E. (2013) Influence of wettability on interfacial area during immiscible liquid invasion into a 3D self-affine rough fracture: Lattice Boltzmann simulations. Advances in Water Resources. 61:1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.advwatres. 2013.08.007

2012 and 2011

  1. Alexandra, R., J.I. Gerhard, and B.H. Kueper. (2012) Hydraulic displacement of dense non-aqueous phase liquids for source zone stabilization, Ground Water, 50(5)765-774.
  2. Boparai, H.K., M. Joseph, D.M. O’Carroll. (2011) Kinetics and thermodynamics of cadmium ion removal by adsorption onto nano zerovalent iron particles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186(1)458-465.
  3. Brovelli, A., D.A. Barry, C. Robinson, and J.I. Gerhard. (2012) Analysis of acidity production during enhanced reductive dechlorination using a simplified reactive transport model.  Advances in Water Resources, 43:14 – 27.
  4. Chowdhury, A. I. A., O’Carroll, D. M., Xua, Y., Sleep, B. E. (2012) Electrophoresis enhanced transport of nano-scale zero valent iron. Advances in Water Resources, 40:71-82.
  5. MacPhee, S.L., J.I. Gerhard, and G. Rein. (2012) A novel method for simulating smoldering propagation and its application to STAR (Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation), Environmental Modelling and Software, 31:84-98.
  6. Pensini, E., Yip, C.M., O’Carroll, D. M., and Sleep, B.E. (2012) Effect of Water Chemistry and Aging on Iron—Mica Interaction Forces: Implications for Iron Particle Transport. Langmuir, 28(28)10453–10463.
  7. Pensini, E., Sleep, B.E., Yip, C.M., O’Carroll, D. (2012) Forces of interactions between bare and polymer coated iron and silica: Effect of pH, ionic strength and humic acids. Environmental Science and Technology. 46(24)13401–13408.
  8. Pironi, P., G. Rein, C. Switzer, J Gerhard, JL Torero. (2011) Self-Sustaining Smoldering Combustion for NAPL Remediation: Laboratory Evaluation of Process Sensitivity to Key Parameters. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(7), 2980-2986.